1. Explanation of what is a Lined Steel Pipe or a CRA Clad pipe from Crystal Industrial

The lined pipe or CRA clad pipe from Crystal Industrial India, is made out of a regular carbon steel or low amalgam steel pipe and a corrosion-resistant compound layer. CRA alludes to corrosion-resistant compound. The CRA layer is metallurgically fortified (clad) or precisely reinforced (lined) to the inner or outer surface of the steel pipe. The carbon steel or low composite steel pipe is called base metal, or sponsorship steel; The CRA layer is normally called cladding material or coating. This is monetarily ideal for huge measurement substantial pipelines since the generally a lot more slender CRA layer holds improved consumption safe properties as well as lessens the expense to the base. The CRA clad or lined steel pipes are generally utilized in pipeline transportation frameworks in the oil and petroleum gas enterprises. They are likewise broadly utilized for marine applications, substance plant, and force plant, and so on.


Materials used as Base materials of lined steel pipes and CRA clad pipes from Crystal Industrial India, consist of welded or seamless line pipes of API 5L Grade B, X80, X70, X65, X60, X56, X52, X46, X42. In different conditions, the base metal can alternatively be furnished as ASTM A333 Gr.6, ASTM A106 Gr.B, ASTM A335 Cr-Mo alloy steels (P91, P9, P22, P11, P5). The lining material or CRA cladding material comprises a large variety of nonferrous alloys and stainless steels : 904L (N08904), Alloy 254 SMO (S31254), S32740, 2507 (S32750), 2506 (S31804), Duplex 2205 (S31803), SS 317/317L, SS 316/316L,SS 304/304L; Monel alloy 400 (N04400), Alloy 20 (N08020), AL6NX (N08367), Alloy 31 (N08031), Inconel alloy 59 (N06059), Hastelloy C-276 (N10276), Inconel alloy 625 (N06625),Incoloy alloy 825 (N08825); Titanium Grade 12, 9, 7, 5, 7, 2; zirconium R60702; and a few alloys of copper. Generally, CRA clad or lined pipes shall be manufactured as per API 5LD. The base material (steel pipe) conforms to ASTM A335, ASTM A333, ASTM A106,API 5L and others. The cladding material shall conform to ASTM A240, B551, B265, B675, B622, B619, B443, B424, B898, A265, A264, A263.


Lined Steel pipes or CRA clad steel pipe from Crystal Industrial India, is a pipe that is dual-metallic and consists of an internal (and in certain cases, external) CRA layer which is bonded metallurgically onto the backing steel. The cladding could be bonded by means of powder metallurgy, hot rolling, weld overlay, coextrusion, explosion bonding or any other process that creates a bond through metallurgical means. The steel pipe that is CRA lined comprises an alloy steel pipe or carbon steel with an external or internal CRA liner. The CRA liner is bonded or securely fitted to the pipe which is base-metal entire length by expansion, compression cold forming, or by some other means. The CRA liner could be a tube or it could be a pipe inserted into a steel pipe, a plate or sheet rolled up into the form of a cylinder by extending the liner and/ or compressing the base pipe, or by any other relevant processes. The clad process effects in a very firm bonding of a metallurgical nature at the joint of the backing steel and of the CRA layer. The mechanical bonding created due to the lining process is comparitively “loose” in case of a lined pipe. Even though the clad pipe displays improved mechanical performances, its cost is comparitively higher.

The lined pipes or CRA clad pipes supplied by Crystal Industrial come in sizes from 1″ (DN 25) upto 100″ (DN 2500) with a minimum CRA layer of thickness 2.5 mm and a maximum length of up to 15 meters. Rigorous heat treatment shall be conducted for both the base-metal pipe and the CRA layer. Usually, the line pipe will be provided in an annealed state while the CRA layer will be provided in solution-annealed state. The chemical composition of the CRA layer and backing steel shall be in conformity with the relative material standard specification. Usually, the mechanical properties of the line pipe or CRA clad is decided by just the properties of the base material. The purchaser may specify the mechanical propertis of the CRA layer.


  • - Tests for Tensile strength: The CRA layer will be removed from every specimen of the final finished product; We also do Transverse tensile tests and Longitudinal tensile tests; Weld tensile test (in case there is any weld seam in the backing steel).
  • - Ultrasonic inspection for clad pipes.
  • - Tests to evaluate Ferrite/austenite ratio in case of duplex stainless steel CRA layer.
  • - Tests to evaluate CRA cladding bond strength and CRA liner tightness.
  • - Tests to evaluate Flattening.
  • - Tests to evaluate Hardness (Vikers – ASTM E 384, Rockwell – ASTM E 18).
  • - Tests to evaluate Guided-bend.
  • - Tests to evaluate Fracture toughness.
  • - Tests to evaluate Corrosio as per ASTM G28 Method A, ASTM G48 Method A, ASTM A262 Practice B or Practice E
  • - Tests to evaluate Residual magnetism (under 15 Gauss).
  • - Inspection for Hydrostatic parameters.
  • - Visual examination and Dimensional inspection.
  • - 100% X-Ray inspection for each and every welds.

World-class cladded pipes

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Extensively documented

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Common Questions about Cladded Pipes

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